KAJIAN PENYELENGGARAAN PENDIDIKAN MENENGAH UNIVERSAL (PMU) DI KABUPATEN BANJAR

Moh. Yamin, - Suyidno

Abstract

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui posisi pendidikan menengah dari sisi efisiensi internal dan skor UN di Kabupaten Banjar, kebutuhan penyelenggaraan PMU di Kabupaten Banjar, serta perbedaan kapasitas fiskal antara pemerintah pusat, provinsi, dan pemerintah kabupaten. Jenis penelitian ini adalah survey dengan pendekatan  kuantitatif dan kuesioner sebagai alat pengumpul data. Populasi penelitian adalah SMA/SMK/MA dan sampel dipilih secara proporsional berdasarkan strata wilayah tinggi, sedang, dan rendah. Teknik analisis data kuantitatif secara deskriptif kualitatif dan kuantitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa (1) posisi pendidikan menengah di Kabupaten Banjar dari skor UN umumnya pada posisi sedang (7.2-7.0) dan paling banyak pada posisi rendah (UN<7.0), terutama pada jenjang Madrasah Aliyah; (2) persebaran penduduk dan sekolah jenjang menengah belum merata sehingga mempengaruhi jumlah siswa yang melanjutkan ke jenjang menengah; (3) anggaran pendidikan dari tahun ke tahun mengalami peningkatan secara siginifikan, terutama pada biaya kesejahteraan tenaga pendidik dan kependidikan, peningkatan profesi diklat, penyelenggaraan KBM, dan kesiswaan. Komponen biaya naik turun yaitu penilaian, daya dan jasa, serta supervisi, serta mengalami penurunan adalah biaya pemeliharaan dan penggantian; (4) sumber biaya dari orang tua mengalami kenaikan dan terbesar; (5) pemerintah perlu mengkaji ulang kesiapan penyelenggaraan PMU di Kabupaten Banjar dengan memperhatikan posisi sekolah berdasarkan skor UN, terutama MA dengan posisinya yang rendah, persebaran penduduk dan persebaran sekolah, ketiadaan sarana dan prasarana sekolah jenjang menengah terutama di kecamatan Tatah Makmur, Aranio, Paramasan, dan Telaga Bauntung, jenjang menengah paling sedikit adalah SMK. Biaya pendidikan orang tua terlalu tinggi. Anggaran baik dari pemerintah kabupaten maupun pemerintah propinsi lebih kecil.  Kata Kunci: PMU, Kebijakan Fiskal, dan UN

 

This study has the objective to determine the position of senior high school in terms of internal efficiency and National Examination scores in Banjar Regency, the need for Universal Secondary Education (Pendidikan Menengah Universal [PMU]), and differences in fiscal capacity between the central, province and district government. This research is survey with quantitative approach and questionnaire as the data collecting instrument. The study population is Senior High School, Vocational High School, and Islamic Senior High School and the sample is chosen proportionally based on high, medium, and low strata area. The quantitative data analysis technique is descriptively qualitative and quantitative. The results of the study show that (1) the position of senior high school in Banjar Regency from the national examination score commonly is in the mid position (7.2-7.0) and at the most bottom position (National Examination <7.0), especially at the Islamic Senior High School level; (2) the distribution of the population and senior high school is not evenly distributed that influences the number of students continuing to mid level; (3) education budget from year to year has increased significantly, especially on the cost of teachers' and employees' welfare, improvement of the training profession, the implementation of teaching-learning process, and students' affairs. The cost componen is up and down, namely assessment, power, services, supervision, maintenance, and replacement; (4) the source of the cost from students' parents increased and is the largest; (5) the government should review the readiness of Universal Secondary Education in Banjar Regency by taking into account the school position based on national examination score, especially Islamic Senior High School with low position, the population distribution and the schools distribution, the absence of medium school facilities and infrastructure, especially in Tatah Makmur, Aranio, Paramasan, and Telaga Bauntung. The least number of school is vocational school. The cost of education from students' parents is too high. The budgets from the district and provincial government is smaller than central government. Key Words: Universal Secondary Education, Fiscal Policy, and National Examination

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